How to Get a Spanish Non-Lucrative Residence Visa (a step-by-step guide)

How to Get a Spanish Non-Lucrative Residence VisaEarlier this year when we started looking into living long-term in Spain we really didn’t know anything about the process. When we did some research it all seemed a bit intimidating.

We are now back in Spain with our long-term Visas. I can tell you that the process wasn’t as complicated as we though. Yes, it takes organization getting all your paperwork together. That’s what this post will cover. But once done everything pretty much sailed through. Just to give you an idea: we started working on getting our documents July 23rd (2020). We had documents ready by August 16th. We had our appointment at the local Spanish consulate on September 1st. On September 11th we were told that we were pre-approved. On September 16th we picked up our Spanish Visas. The whole process took less than 2 months. On September 30th we were on a plane to Spain.


What I cover in this post

A. Why the Spanish Non-Lucrative Visa
B. The “Broad” Strokes of getting a Spanish Non-lucrative Visa
C. Requirements where you apply might be different. And getting help
D. Scheduling
E. The Nitty-gritty of Paperwork and Documents
F. Apostilization and Translations
G. Other important details
H. Total Costs
I. We have our Visas. Now What?
J. Summing it all up



 A. Why the Spanish Non-Lucrative Visa?

There are different types of long term Spanish Visas: the Student Visa, the Work Visa, the Au Pair Visa, the Entrepreneur Visa, the Working Holiday Visa, the Golden Visa, and the Spanish Non-Lucrative Visa. You’ll find details on each here.

As retirees not wanting to invest lots of money (the Golden Visa requires a minimum 500,000 Euro investment in property) the Spanish Non-Lucrative Visa easily made the most sense. It is a Visa for people who want to live long term in Spain, who have sufficient financial means to not work, and who don’t have a criminal record. And the great thing about the Non-Lucrative Visa (which I’ll sometimes refer to as the ‘non-lucrativo’ for short) is that you can renew and after 5 years obtain Permanent Residency in Spain. Obtaining Permanent Residency was the whole reason we applied in the first place.


Detailed Benefits/Obligations

  • You can stay in Spain up to a year, then for renewal periods of 2 years. Once you’ve totalled 5 years, you can apply for Permanent Residency. You can even become a Spanish Citizen after 10 years (but you have to renounce your original nationality)
  • You can travel through the Schengen zone with total freedom (although you are required to be in Spain for 6 months plus 1 day of the year)
  • You can apply not only for yourself, but also for family members
  • You can sign contracts, rent property, sign utility contracts etc.
  • You can send your children to Spanish school
  • You can invest in Spain, making money that way

On the other hand,

  • You cannot work for a Spanish Company (but you can work remotely from Spain. So if you have a job in Canada or the US and can work remotely then the non-lucrativo is perfect for you)
  • You cannot get any public benefits (including public healthcare)
  • You have to file Spanish taxes (if your country has a tax agreement with Spain you don’t have to worry about double taxation)

We’re in our early 50’s and thinking about where we can settle long term. For us the non-lucrativo was the perfect Visa to stay long-term in Spain while working towards Permanent Residency.



B. The “Broad” Strokes of getting a Spanish Non-lucrative Visa

  1. You have to apply at your local consulate (you cannot do it in Spain). This was a bit inconvenient for us as we’ve been travelling around the world for the last 6 years. We had to go back home to Montreal to apply for the non-lucrativo
  2. Get all the required documents (which I will cover in detail) and make sure they are up to date. Your documents have to have dated within 90 days of your Visa appointment, not more.
  3. Get government documents (like criminal records and wedding certificates) Apostilled or, if your country is not part of the Hague Convention, authenticated and legalized which is the equivalent to having it apostilled (I have a section below on getting documents apostilled)
  4. Get required documents translated by an official, Spanish-approved Spanish translator
  5. Assemble all your documents, make copies, get a couple of passport photos
  6. Have your Visa appointment where you’ll submit your documents and pay your Visa fees
  7. Once you get pre-approved you can book your flight to Spain. The Visa will be finalized and you can then pick up your Visa and go to Spain.



C. Requirements where you apply might be different. And getting help

One of the things we quickly learned is that while the process is generally the same everywhere you apply, the requirements might vary slightly not only on the country you’re applying from, but also the specific consulate. For example, we had an Australian tell us that we needed a fixed address for our application. We had a Mexican tell us that you not only need a fixed address, but also a lease.

We were confused by the different stories we were getting.

That’s why you really need to consult with someone official. I wrote the Spanish consulate in Montreal and they told us that we in fact did not require a lease. I also consulted with a Spanish lawyer when doing our documents and she told me that the boxes requiring an address could be left blank.

You don’t need someone doing your documents for you. You can do it alone. But don’t be shy to write the consulate that you’ll be applying at with any specific questions. And consult with an immigration lawyer if you want a professional to look over all your documents before you submit them (who can also write you a “motive” letter if required).

All the above is important because if there is a major mistake or omission in your documents, the consulate might reject your application which might mean you have to re-apply…which means you fall to the back of the application line.

We used the services of Marta at Balcells Group. Email: [email protected]  Website:

Note: We applied in September 2020 during Covid times. The processed was altered: we first sent in scanned documents which were reviewed by the consulate. The lady was very helpful, going through everything is great detail. Having seen it all, she then gave us an appointment date. So when we actually brought all the documents they had already been reviewed which made everything a piece of cake.



D. Scheduling

It’s very important that documents be dated within 3 months (not more) of your appointment date. They have to be current.

For most of your documents that’s not a big deal – leave the date blank until a short time before you apply. But for documents that are issued to you from other parties, you need to plan. They included, for us:

Criminal Records. It took a 4 days for us to get our Canadian criminal records in the mail.
Wedding Certificate. It took 3 days to get an updated wedding certificate in the mail.
Medical Certificate. We had medical exams done at a private clinic. It took a week to get them in the mail.
Bank Letter. I had to arrange an official letter with my bank. That took a week.

After obtaining the above, I used a company to get the Criminal records and Wedding Certificate authenticated (part of the apostille process) in Ottawa. They required official documents and it took a week to get the documents back, adorned with official stamps from Global Affairs Canada.

I then had to get the Criminal records, the wedding certificate, and the bank letter (not the medical certificate – it had been issued in 3 languages including Spanish) translated by an official translator. Scanned copies were fine, she didn’t need originals. That took about 4 days.

As you can see, there were several steps involved and I couldn’t do certain steps before I had done preceding steps.

Just to give you an idea: I started working on getting documents on July 23rd. By August 16th I had all my documents prepared and sent them all electronically to the Consulate. So it took a bit less than a month to prepare everything. We got our appointment at the Consulate for the 1st of September.

Tip: Plan before executing. Before you do anything, figure out how you will get your documents. And pre-arrange your translator and how you’ll get your documents apostilled. You want to have all the steps planned out ahead of time so that when you get your documents you can have them apostilled and translated without delay.

I’ll have much more below on documents and the translation and apostilization steps.



E. The Nitty-gritty of Paperwork and Documents

As I say, the general requirements are mostly the same wherever you apply. I’ve included links of the requirements below for:

Non-lucrative Visa Requirements – Montreal  

Non-lucrative Visa Requirements – Los Angeles

The difference can be in some of the unwritten details as I described further above. It’s why I mention that writing the Consulate with specific questions (especially as regards to address/lease requirements in Spain) or consulting with a Spanish immigration lawyer is a good idea.


Documents required:


I’ll start with the things that’ll take a bit more time.


1. Evidence of Economic Means

On paper it’s simple. You need to prove economic means of 2,130 Euros/mo for yourself and 532 Euro/mo for each dependent that is applying with you.

In practice it’s not as clear. So what do you need?

My Spanish lawyer suggested the following “Current bank certificate showing your funds. The minimum amount requested for 2 applicants is 33.000€*. You can show as much accounts as you have. You can also show the balance of the last 3 or 6 months. In case you receive some monthly incomes you can also demonstrate it. For instance: if you are the owner of a Real Estate and you are renting it. Some people have some kind of investment account that you could also show”.

* 2,130/mo for myself + 532/mo for Lissette (my dependent) = 2,662/mo for the 2 of us = approx 33,000 Euros/yr.

What we did. I had my bank manager write me a letter, indicating our current bank and investment balances, saying we’ve been customers for many years. He signed the letter and had the bank stamp it. In addition he produced statements supporting the amounts in the letter. On top of that, I did a spreadsheet showing our monthly bank and investment balances for the last 6 months.

We didn’t need all the above. The Consulate was happy with the letter alone. I had worried a bit about showing “monthly income” but it was never an issue.

Note: Anything submitted had to be translated. In our case we had the bank letter translated by the officially Spanish translator.

Note 2: Because we applied with Lissette as my dependent (otherwise the economic means you need to show are much higher) I had to arrange for a updated wedding certificate showing we were married. It had to have been issued in the last 3 months. The wedding certificate had to be both apostilled (more on that later) and translated into Spanish.


2. Medical certificate

It has to be issued in the last 3 months by a doctor with the following text:

 “This medical certificate confirms that Mr. / Mrs. [……..] does not suffer from any of the diseases that can have serious implications for public health in accordance with the provisions of the 2005 International Health Regulations” This certificate must be issued in a letter format and must include the official stamp of the medical center or the doctor.

What we did. We went to a large private health clinic in downtown Montreal. I had booked it about a month in advance and told them exactly what we needed, including the requirements of the letter. They said they could do it.

The clinic did the basics: blood tests, urine tests, a simple medical exam, x-rays, an eye test. It all took about 90 minutes.

A week later we both received medical certificates in the mail, the letter in English, French and Spanish (which saved us from having to have the document translated).

Note: the medical certificate would have had to be translated had it not had a version in Spanish. No Apostilization required.


3. Criminal Records

You need to have a “negative” criminal record issued from any country where you’ve lived over the last 5 years. And it has to be issued within 90 days of your visa application date.

Our Canadian criminal records were very simple. You need a criminal record issued by the RCMP (the equivalent to the FBI in Canada). The easiest way in Montreal is to go to one of the many companies that do this. They all have a direct connection to RCMP headquarters in Ottawa where the request will be handled. You have to do fingerprints, sign a document…and that’s it. Took us about 30 minutes.

We received the criminal records 4 days later in the mail.

Note: you will have to have the criminal records apostilled (more on this later) and then translated into Spanish.

In our case criminal records were much more complicated because we had also lived in Croatia for a year in 2017. And in Croatia everything official is complicated. We had to get country records from Zagreb as well as municipal records from Split. Both had to be apostilled in Croatia. Not only that, we then had to have them translated from Croatian to Spanish. The whole thing cost $800. Unbelievable.



4. Medical Insurance for a company entitled to operate in Spain.

Part of a non-lucrative visa is being self-sufficient for healthcare, thus the need for private health insurance while in Spain.

Theoretically we could have continued with our Expat insurance policy with Allianz Insurance (we’ve been travelling full-time around the world the last 6 years). But since it’s worldwide health insurance, it’s expensive.

So when we went to Spain earlier this year we set up an appointment with Adeslas, one of the largest private health providers in Spain. It cut our insurance costs in half. On top of that, their policy covers 3 months consecutive outside the country (so it’s covered us while we’ve been in Canada applying for our Visa).

I wrote about it all in this post: Opening a Spanish Bank account without an NIE. And securing private health insurance

Our agent is Genoveva Loicq in Jaen. She speaks French and Spanish but not English (use Google translate if contacting her). Her email: [email protected] . Tell her that Frank and Lissette recommended her.

Note: the policy automatically renews after a year which is a requirement of the Visa process.

Note 2: Adeslas can only be paid from a Spanish bank account as I mention in the above post. Our contact at Sabadell bank in Alicante: Ana Morales email: [email protected]. She was very helpful (she speaks English)


The above documents require the most work to obtain. The forms that I list below require detail but are easy.



5. Application for a National Visa

This form is the application form for all kinds of long stay Visas in Spain.

You can find a blank form here.

The form is pretty straightforward. Box 20 should be filled out as “Residence without work permit”. Box 22 should be “more than two”. Don’t forget that dates should be day/month/year. Don’t glue a photo where the form says “Photo” (I was guilty of that).

I’m attaching an example of how to fill out an application for a National Visa

Note: no apostilization or translation necessary.



6. Form EX-01

This form is specific to the Spanish non-lucrative residence Visa.

You can find the blank form here. You’ll find Spanish Instructions on the 2nd page

More complicated than it should be and how you fill it out depends on what the individual consulate wants. Fill out sections 1 and 3. In section 3, where it says “Domicilio en Espana” we were told to write our Canadian address. Below section 3 check off the box that says “Consiento…”. In section 4, check “inicial” and leave everything else alone. Above the signature box enter the city, day, month (in Spanish) and year, ex: Montreal, a 7 de agosto, 2020.

I’m attaching an example of how to fill out Form EX-01

Note: no apostilization or translation necessary.



7. Form 790, Codigo 052

Form 790-052 is a residency authorization application form and has to do with payment to obtain an NIE and other certificates.

You can find the blank form here.

It’s the easiest form to fill out. After filling out your name, nationality and telephone in the top section, the only box to check off below is 1C “Autorizacion inicial de residencia temporal”.

I’m attaching an example of how to fill out Form 790, Codigo 052

Note: no apostilization or translation necessary.





F. Apostilization and Translations



A ‘Hague Apostile” is an international certification that makes documents between different countries valid. Countries have to be part of the Hague Convention (sometimes just called the Apostile Treaty). When both countries are part of the Treaty, the documents from one country are made valid in another country by having the issuing country certify the document. In the USA for example, this is done by each state’s Secretary of State.

Surprisingly, Canada is not part of the Hague Convention and the process is slightly different. There are 2 steps required for ‘Apostile equivalency’ in Canada. 1) Canadian issued documents have to be presented to Global Affairs Canada in Ottawa where they are authorized, 2) Those documents, after having been authorized, have to be legalized at the Consulate of the country they are to be presented in.

What we did. We didn’t have to go to Ottawa physically to get our documents authorized. Different companies can do it for you.  We used a company in Ottawa and sent them original documents (in our case our wedding certificate and criminal records) by courier to their office in Ottawa. They had them authorized at Global Affairs (that took 3 working days), then they were couriered back to us.
Note: theoretically the company would have sent them to the Spanish consulate in Montreal for the 2nd part of the Apostilization process (legalization) but, after talking to the Spanish Consulate, I decided doing that was a waste of time and money. Since the documents had to be presented to the consulate anyway they could just legalize them when I handed them in. That’s what we did and it worked out fine.

In the case of our Croatian criminal records, the Apostilization was done by judges in both Zagreb and Split. Since Croatia is a member of the Hague Convention it was easy.



Documents that have to be translated into Spanish cannot be translated by anyone, they have to be translated by official, Spanish government-approved translators.

This list gives you the official list of all official translators.

Page 608 for example, gives you a list of translators in Canada who translate from English to Spanish. Page 614 gives you a list of translators in the USA who translate from English to Spanish.

We used Raquel Flores [email protected] for our English language documents. As mentioned previously, she never needed original documents: I send her scanned copies of our apostilled documents (criminal records and wedding certificate) and she had them translated in 3 days. She then sent them back to me in PDF format, electronically signed.

I also used a Croatian -> Spanish translator for our Croatian documents. She was also excellent.





G. Other important details

Passport. You need a valid passport with at least 1 year remaining on it and at least 2 blank pages. This was an issue for me because I came back to Canada with a full passport. After speaking to the consulate, I applied for an urgent passport from Passport Canada. Because of Covid they only deal with urgent cases and I needed a note from the Spanish Consulate that I urgently needed a passport for our Visas. I had no issues: it took me 2 days to get a new Canadian passport*.
*If anyone needs info on getting an urgent, last minute passport during Covid times write me. I’ll tell you the process.

Wedding Certificate. We needed an updated Wedding Certificate (issued in the last 90 days) because (for the financial “Evidence of Economic Means”) I wanted to list Lissette as my dependent. We ordered it online on the Quebec website and it was received in our mailbox 3 days later.

1 passport photo. You need 1 passport sized photo for the Visa. It has to be dated in the back. Always good to get a few extra copies though (you’ll need 2 more photos when you go to Spain and get your TIE. But that’s another problem for another day…)

1 Full set copies of everything. When setting up your appointment at the Spanish consulate, they’ll tell you to bring the original documents as well as a set of copies for them. I recommend 2 sets of copies just in case. When you get your Visa they’ll give you back your originals.

Copies of Passports. The consulate will ask you to make photocopies of every page of your passport (even if blank).

Keeping your passport. The consulate may keep your passport during the application process. They did with us, telling us that it shouldn’t take long and that it would save us a return trip to the consulate.

Motivo letter. Some consulates may ask that you provide a “motivo” letter which explains why you’re applying for a Non-lucrative residence Visa. We had our lawyer do one in Spanish. But it was not required and the Consulate didn’t even look at it. Double check with the consulate where you’ll be applying.

Where will you be living? We didn’t have to give an address or even a location in Spain where we might want to live. We did mention it might be Granada but said that we weren’t sure yet. They were fine with that. Nowhere in the forms did we ever have to give a Spanish address.

Forms required for both you and your spouse. We both had to fill out forms and get documents. The only common document was the marriage certificate.

Visa Fees. The last thing at your Visa appointment: paying your Visa fees to the Consulate. It cost us $ 777.70 Canadian each (that’s $585 USD each). And they accept cash or money orders. We arranged our cash ahead of time and gave them exact bills and change.





H. Total Costs

Costs will depend on your circumstances but here is what we had to pay for the 2 of us (ie. total)

Consular fees                                           $1,555
Canadian Criminal Records                      120
Croatian Criminal Records                        676
Medical Certificates                                  1,166
Wedding Certificate                                       65
English to Spanish translator                    300
Croatian to Spanish translator                  125
Authentication of Documents                   217
Other minor costs (copies, photos)          100
                                                                          $4,324 Canadian (about $3,250 USD)


Wow! Didn’t realize how much it added up to until I summed it all up. And that doesn’t include our airfares to come back to Canada for the application process. But 99% of you won’t have to produce criminal records from a country like Croatia and hopefully most of you have a family doctor who can produce those medical certificates for a lot less money.





I. We have our Visas. Now What?

Before being “final”-approved, the consulate will tell you that you are pre-approved. At that point you have to make your travel arrangements to Spain. Once you have done that, and shown them proof of your flight, the Consulate tells you that your Visa has been approved. You now have 30 days to pick it up.

Also, the Visa is only good for 90 days from your stated arrival date in Spain. You’ve been “provisionally” approved to stay in Spain but there’s a last step that you can only do in Spain: that is going to a local office of the Oficina de la Extranjeria (foreigner’s office) where you apply for your Tarjeta de Identidad de Extranjero (ie. your Foreigner Identity card, or TIE) which will be your residency permit for the remainder of your 1 year stay. I’ll have a whole other post on that process. You should be making your appointment at the Oficina de la Extranjeria within 30 days of entering the country.





J. Summing it all up

Reading all the above it seems like a lot of work and a lot of rules to follow. Really it’s not that bad. Start with your Spanish private insurance. You might have to open a Spanish bank account. There’s no time restriction on these. When you start on your documents, start with the ones that require more time (criminal records, medical certificates, proof of economic means, updated ID’s like passports or wedding certificates). Then get those apostilled and/or translated. Then you fill out the consulate forms.

It all kind of flows and before you know it, you’re done. If you’re the organized type and you’ve researched it all, it’s not really that complicated.

So don’t get discouraged looking at all the above.

The reward is that you get to live in Spain, at worst just a year but just maybe for the rest of your life. So it’s worth it 🙂

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How to Get a Spanish Non-Lucrative Residence Visa
How to Get a Spanish Non-Lucrative Residence Visa
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  1. Thanks for this great and informative post. My wife and I are looking to do the same, maybe next year when covid has died down. I did have a couple of follow up questions that I hope you don’t mind my asking.

    1) with regards to bank certificates, did your lawyer or the consulate mention anything about the accounts needing to be in a savings or current account? For example, we have aome money set aside in an index fund with our bank. Would that be acceptable to them?

    2) Would you be able to share the cost of your Spanish lawyer and whether your were satisfied with the service they provided?

    Any additional help would be appreciated!

    1. Hi Ryan,

      No problem at all:
      1) No, doesn’t matter what accounts. If you can produce something official showing where you have your money then no problem. In our case we had our cash and investment accounts with RBC. But lots of people will have bank accounts at a bank and investment accounts at an investment company. However you have it, try to get an account manager to do a letter for you so it’s official.
      2) Very happy with our Spanish lawyer. We used them for a few documents relating to overstaying our Schengen stay (we were stuck in Spain 4 months in lockdown) as well as having them draw up “Motivo letters”. The letters were 75 Euros and 50 Euros each respectively. I also asked Marta if she could review some of our forms before submitting them to the consulate. She was going to charge me 50 Euros for that but she never ended up charging me. I also came back and asked her a few questions on other topics and she never charged me for that either. They offered to take over the whole Visa application for us (I can’t remember how much, I think it was for the equivalent of about $1200 Canadian each) but we didn’t want to spend that kind of money and really wanted to do it on our own. But they were very fair and very helpful.

      Don’t be shy if you have any other questions.

  2. Ahhhh… Bureaucracy. Isn’t it great?

    Having secured a few Temporary Residence Permits myself (5 in 3 different countries),
    I know how good you guys must be feeling right now! It’s a jolt of excitement, realization,
    along with a big “we did it” exhale! Congrats to you both.

    Oh… and you do realize that you have just penned the “How to Guide” to Spanish
    non-lucrative visas, right? Everyone behind you will be using this as a blueprint now.

    And remember, “Legal residency” and “Tax residency” are two TOTALLY different things.
    You may not even be liable to Spain’s onerous tax system? (contact off board if you want)

    Again, well done.

    1. Thank you Michael. We’re unfortunately familiar with dealing with taxes – Lissette has to file US taxes every year despite not having lived in the US for over 20 years. We’ll have to do the same for Spain, fortunately for us (I guess) Canada has an equally onerous tax system (35% tax during our peak earning years…never mind all the sales taxes). While not a tax expert, I’m told that our tax treaty should offset any differences when we file.

  3. Fantastic! Super useful post. We’re in our late 50’s, living in Ottawa, and have been thinking of working towards living in Spain. You’ve made it seem manageable. Good to know that they’re accepting visa applications during these times, we had our doubts…

    1. We actually dealt with the consulate in Ottawa back in March when we had questions (the Montreal consulate must have been closed at that time because we could never get an answer to anything). Anyway, the Spanish consulate in Ottawa was fantastic, always answering quickly to any questions we had. You’ll be in good hands 🙂

  4. Congratulations again to both,
    It does seem mind boggling process, but you made it.
    Just FYI and to above Edith’s remark: some countries (special treaties I assume) allow duel or even triple citizenship. My husband has three of them and myself I have two. Many other countries do not allow it, so one obviously needs to choose their “loyalty” lol.

    1. Hi Sara,
      Yes, Lissette for example has dual citizenship: Canadian and American. But as you mention some don’t allow it, although I’m not sure in practice how (or if) the Spanish apply the rule.

    2. I acquired Swedish citizenship several years ago, when Sweden started to allow dual citizenship. I guess I just assumed that it was about the same for all EU countries. From what I have read about Spain (and it’s not much), they allow dual citizenship for Ibero-Americans. Another thing is that apparently it’s kind of easy to lose Spanish citizenship. The advantage I suppose of getting Spanish citizenship is freer movement within the EU?

      1. Interesting what you say about dual citizenship for Ibero-Americans. I don’t know about that…but if so maybe Lissette with her Puerto Rican heritage/American passport could get dual citizenship?
        I think the advantage to citizenship primarily access to social benefits like healthcare and being able to vote. I mention that under the Visa we have to be in Spain 6 months plus 1 day but once we have Permanent residency we have (I believe) the same ability to move around the EU.

        1. I think with Lissette’s roots from PR, she actually qualifies for Spanish
          citizenship a lot faster. (2 years only?) I would have to double check…
          but I know PR qualifies as “Spanish” in Spain’s eyes.

  5. Great information, thank you so much for posting! We will be following you to the area in a few short months..we will be using the Toronto Consulate.

        1. It’s proving to be a little difficult – very hard to get an appointment at the foreigner’s office right now. But they’re making allowances for that…
          I’ll be doing a post when we actually have it in hand which might be a while.

      1. Frank would you care to pass along who you used with regards to your Spanish lawyer. We could sure use your reference.
        I neglected to pass on prior, congrats to both of you on getting your NLV…good luck with the rest of your journey finalizing everything. We will stay in touch may meet up with you both one day!

  6. I am surprised that a person has to renounce their citizenship to become a citizen of Spain (with some exceptions, it seems). I wonder how that really works in practice. Even if Spain makes you renounce your citizenship that doesn’t mean your country of origin recognizes that renunciation. At any rate, I guess there is no reason to get Spanish citizenship if you meet all the requirements for residency.

    1. You are exactly right Edith. Spain will view you as being exclusively Spanish…but if you’re American for example, you’ll still be viewed as an American citizen 🙂 Theoretically though you are required to renounce it if that means anything at all…
      And your 2nd point right on as well.

      1. I have friends who obtained Spanish citizenship years ago. They never gave up their US citizenship. They have 2 passports which allowed them to go to Spain this summer. They do own a house in Nerja. But I seriously doubt that it cost over 500K euros.

        1. Thanks John. Always differences between the official line and the practicalities. Spain might not recognize dual citizenship but at the same time I don’t know how they can enforce renouncing your first citizenship. Curious, why did your friends opt to get Spanish citizenship?
          And did they get their visa on a non-lucrativo or on a Golden Visa?

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